The Comprehensive Guide to Successful Turkey Farming: Tips, Techniques, and Best Practices



Native to North America, the turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris. The wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) of eastern and central North America and the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata) of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico are the only two species of turkey that still exist today.

Turkey farming has been around for a very long time and has strong roots in agriculture. The Indians of pre-Columbian Mexico most likely started domesticating the domesticated turkey. The birds were brought to Spain for the first time around 1519, and from there they travelled across Europe, arriving in England around 1541. Then, in the 17th century, English colonists brought turkey strains that had been bred in Europe to eastern North America. Up until around 1935, turkeys were primarily developed for their exquisitely colourful plumage. After that point, the emphasis on breeding shifted to the quality of their meat. For numerous households around the world, this industry is essential in supplying a reliable source of protein.

The practice of farming turkeys has a long history, going back to the early civilizations which revered these birds for their culinary and cultural value. The practice has evolved over the years from modest backyard operations to sophisticated commercial operations. Today, there are many different ways to raise turkeys, from large-scale industrial production to free-range and organic husbandry. Successful farming requires an understanding of the unique needs and life cycle of the turkey. Each stage is essential to ensure the health and welfare of the flock, from choosing the proper breed to giving adequate nourishment and housing.

In the agricultural sector, there has been a paradigm shift in recent years towards lucrative and sustainable practices, and turkey farming is no exception. Sustainable practices prioritise the health of the birds while also preserving the ecosystem and their long-term viability. Contrarily, profitability is crucial for the long-term viability of turkey farming enterprises. Farmers can not only secure their personal financial security but also contribute to the general stability of the sector by increasing feed efficiency, reducing waste, and researching niche markets.

Female turkeys are called hens, males are toms, and the young are known as poults or turkeylings. Turkeys are incredibly gregarious creatures, but if they aren’t housed with suitable companions, they might die of loneliness. Farmers have heard tales of toms that puff and swagger whenever human women pass by the coop or hens that follow their owners around during the mating season. Additionally, watchful and vocal, turkeys chirp as young birds and gobble as adults in response to loud stimuli. Like all avian species, males can be aggressive and territorial, using their razor-sharp claws to attack strangers or newcomers.

In the sections of this article, we’ll go into more detail about the precise methods and approaches used in turkey farming to achieve profitability and sustainability. By using these procedures, producers will be able to both meet the rising demand for turkey products and do it in a way that is kind to the environment and the welfare of the animals.

 Choosing the Right Breed

When it comes to raising poultry, choosing the ideal breed is crucial. The following are some things to remember:

  • Purpose: Determine the main reason for raising turkeys. Are you going for egg laying, meat production, or both at once? Breeds vary in their abilities in many fields.
  • Space and Environment: Consider the size of the area at your disposal and the surrounding conditions. While certain breeds do best in free-range environments, others do better in confined spaces.
  • Temperament: Take into account the breed’s temperament. While some are more independent, others are more docile and social, making them appropriate for family environments.
  • Climate Adaptability: Make sure the breed you choose can handle the climate where you live. While certain breeds do better in warmer areas, some are more tolerant of the cold.
  • Availability: Check the availability of the selected breed in your area. Some breeds could be hard to find or unusual.
  • Growth Rate: Consider the breed’s growth rate if you are raising poultry for meat production. Some breeds are perfect for shorter production cycles because they mature quickly.
  • Health and Diseases: Research the breed’s propensity for common poultry diseases to show resistance. Choose breeds recognised for their tenacity and resistance to disease.
Heritage vs. Broad-Breasted Turkeys

Heritage turkeys are long-lived, genetically varied varieties with the capacity for open mating. They are frequently flighty, aggressive foragers, and have the ability to raise their own young. The historical breeds have lost popularity due to the introduction of larger, meatier birds, nearly going extinct, and losing genetic diversity. However, proponents of slow food and the local food movement have bragged about its benefits in recent years, which has led to a rise in their numbers.


The majority of turkeys raised industrially are broad-breasted. Compared to their heritage counterparts, they grow faster and dress larger. Broad-breasted turkeys come in two colours: white and bronze/brown. Although images of iridescent bronze turkeys with white banding are beautiful, white is the most popular colour for commercial production since the carcass dresses out better. Dark and noticeable bronze pin feathers are possible. When a feather is plucked, a melanin-rich fluid pocket that frequently surrounds the feather shaft leaks like ink. Growing white birds solves the issue.

Turkey hatcheries have a wide selection. When you’ve made the decision to raise turkeys, the first step in selecting the best breed is picking between heritage and broad-breasted turkeys. You may wish to think about raising a few huge broad-breasted turkeys to roast for the winter holidays. However, heritage breeds will inherently lay fertile eggs if you decide to grow turkeys in the future from your own flock. Broad-breasted turkeys, on the other hand, need artificial insemination because they are too awkward to mate naturally due to their vast weight and large chests.

Heritage breeds of turkey are more disease-resistant and better foragers than broad-breasted varieties, making them appropriate for maintaining on pasture. Heritage turkeys, on the other hand, mature at a considerably slower rate and are finished in six to seven months, while broad-breasted varieties are ready for harvest in four to five months. Even though a heritage turkey meat project takes two months longer, the end result is meat that is juicier and more flavorful. The breast of a heritage turkey is only roughly half as big as that of a broad-breasted turkey, though, if you’re solely into white meat.

Although it may seem contradictory to raise a heritage breed for meat, doing so supports those who work to preserve the genetic lines of rare and endangered breeds. And let’s face it: A turkey’s main goal is to create flesh. Despite the fact that turkey eggs are delicious, the hens only lay them occasionally, making egg production an uneconomical incentive to raise turkeys. Other justifications for growing turkeys include wanting to enjoy these stunning birds strutting about your farm or contributing to the genetic preservation of the rarer kinds.

Considerations for Climate and Location
  • Turkeys are sensitive to high temperatures, thus they don’t tolerate them well. It’s crucial to pick a breed that can flourish in your particular climate.
  • High humidity conditions might cause respiratory problems in turkeys. Breeds like the Broad Breasted Bronze are excellent for areas with high moisture levels since they have demonstrated hardiness in humid environments.
  • Different turkey breeds require different amounts of room. Choose a breed that fits your farm’s space requirements after taking into account the available land. In comparison to historical breeds, Broad Breasted Whites noted for their commercial viability, might need greater area.
  • Examine the common predators in your area to determine the local predators. Some turkey breeds are better at repelling predators, giving them a better option for areas with a high concentration of natural dangers.
  • Heritage breeds like the Narragansett and Black Spanish may thrive on your farm if there are enough possibilities for foraging because of their innate foraging behaviours.
  • Make sure your poultry housing is climate-friendly. For the maintenance of a comfortable environment, adequate insulation and ventilation are essential and Ensure a dependable and sanitary water source. In hotter climates, having access to water might be very important.

 Setting Up Your Turkey Farm

farmer girl hugging turkey farme

Designing the Farm Layout

Your turkey farm’s design is crucial to guaranteeing the welfare and productivity of your flock. Choose a location where there is enough room for the turkeys to move about, exercise, and forage. Make sure there is enough space for future growth.

Organise the area into distinct zones, one for the brooding area, one for the turkeys’ growth, and one for breeding. The preservation of ideal conditions at every phase of the life cycle of a turkey depends on this segregation.

  • Brooding Area

Newly hatched poults will spend their first few weeks in the brooding area. Give your turkeys access to clean water and specialised starter feed in a warm, draft-free setting. Make sure there is enough light to encourage wholesome growth.

  • Growing Area

The turkeys will need more space as they get older. During the colder months, the growing area needs to have shelters or turkey houses that are well-ventilated and heated. Give the turkeys plenty of room to roam and indulge in their natural behaviours.

  • Breeding Area

If you intend to raise turkeys for breeding on your farm, select a space with separate coops for toms and hens. Set up appropriate nesting boxes and make sure that the surroundings are ideal for mating and egg-laying.

Equipment and Infrastructure Requirements

The effectiveness and production of your turkey farm are directly related to your investment in the appropriate machinery. What you’ll need is as follows:

  • Brooders and Heaters: To simulate the natural warmth that a mother hen would provide to young poults, a well-regulated brooder with changeable heat settings is needed.
  • Water and Feeding Systems: Choose automatic feeders and drinkers to provide food and water continuously. As a result, labour is reduced and reliable nutrition is provided.
  • Depending on where you live, you could need heating systems to keep a comfortable environment throughout the winter months. For air circulation and humidity reduction, proper ventilation systems are crucial.
  • Nesting and Roosting Arrangements: Provide appropriate nesting boxes and roosting poles to promote natural behaviour and maximise egg production for breeding operations.
  • Transportation and Handling Equipment: Depending on the size of your farm, invest in equipment like boxes or trailers for the safe and effective transportation of turkeys.
  • Supplies for health and hygiene: Stock up on cleaning materials, disinfectants, and veterinary supplies to keep the area clean and quickly manage any health issues.
  • Measures for Security and Fencing: To deter predators, secure the perimeter of your property with strong fencing. Add further security measures, such as motion-activated lights or alarms.
  • Egg Handling Equipment: Equipment for collecting, storing, and incubating eggs should be purchased if you are breeding turkeys.

Feeding and Nutrition

For healthy growth and development, turkeys are fed nutritionally balanced diets of various grains and oilseeds, often including corn, soya, wheat, barley and canola. A small percentage (6 to 8%) of animal protein, such as meat and bone meal, may also be used in some turkey feeds, helping to guarantee that there is enough protein, calories, minerals, and fat to suit the nutritional needs of a naturally omnivorous turkey.

Organic Turkey GrowerSquare

Feed is frequently changed to correspond with the birds’ phases of growth. Poults, or young turkeys, are fed a “starter” combination. The feed is modified as they grow to satisfy their changing nutritional needs. Every feed type has the ideal ratio of protein, calories, fibre, fat, and other substances including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamins.

Turkeys should have unrestricted access to food and water throughout the day, so they can always assist themselves.

 Health and Disease Management

Common Turkey Health Issues
  • Respiratory Conditions: Turkeys are prone to respiratory diseases and infections, which can be brought on by a number of things such as inadequate ventilation, high ammonia levels, and pathogen exposure. Aside from avian influenza, infectious bronchitis is another common respiratory disease in turkeys. Coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, and a decrease in egg production are some symptoms.
  • Gastrointestinal Disorders: Blackhead disease and coccidiosis are two conditions that can seriously harm a flock of turkeys. The intestinal parasite disease coccidiosis causes diarrhoea, stunted growth, and in severe cases, fatality. If not treated right once, the protozoan parasite that causes blackhead disease can cause liver damage and significant fatality rates.
  • Parasitic Infestations: A flock of turkeys may be afflicted by external and internal parasites. Inflammation and tension brought on by mites and lice can reduce productivity. Internal parasites like worms can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, which can lead to stunted growth and general frailty.
Preventative Measures and Vaccination
  • Biosecurity Protocols: The first line of defence against disease outbreaks is to have stringent biosecurity measures in place. This entails regulating access to the farm, offering foot showers, and ensuring that all tools are well-sanitised.
  • Proper Nutrition: A balanced diet is essential for keeping the immune system strong. Make sure the turkeys get the right vitamins, minerals, and nutrients to support their growth and illness resistance.
  • Vaccination Programs: To protect your flock of turkeys, you must create a customised immunisation programme. The danger of outbreaks can be decreased via vaccinations, which can offer immunity against particular diseases. To determine the best immunisation regimen for your farm, speak with a veterinarian.
Recognizing Early Signs of Illness
  • Behaviour Modifications: Pay particular attention to any modifications in behaviour. This can take the form of diminished activity, seclusion from the flock, or a decline in appetite. These may be a sign of a more serious health problem.
  • Physical Symptoms: Check your turkeys frequently for any physical problems. Disease-related symptoms can include swollen joints, discoloured wattles, or unusual faeces.
  • Respiratory Distress: Wheezing, coughing, or laboured breathing are blatant signs of respiratory distress and need to be treated right away.

Housing and Shelter

Designing a Comfortable Living Space

A successful turkey farm is built on a solid foundation of well-designed living quarters. Giving turkeys enough space allows them to roam freely, expand their wings, and engage in other natural behaviours. To avoid overpopulation and tension among the flock, it is crucial to follow the industry-recommended spacing requirements in this regard.

Additionally, the type of flooring is crucial in providing comfort. Choosing easy-to-clean, non-slip surfaces reduces the chance of accidents while also creating a safe environment.

Ventilation and Temperature Control

Every turkey housing construction must maintain the ideal levels of ventilation and warmth. The right airflow controls moisture levels, lowers the chance of respiratory problems, and removes dangerous gases. A steady supply of fresh air is guaranteed by natural ventilation through well-placed windows and vents, supplemented by mechanical devices if necessary.

Controlling the temperature is similarly important, especially in areas vulnerable to extreme weather. Precision regulation is made possible by using contemporary technologies like thermostats and climate control systems, ensuring that turkeys are kept comfortable all year long.

Nesting and Roosting Areas

The general health and reproductive success of the turkey flock depend on the creation of favourable nesting and roosting areas. Hens can lay their eggs safely in adequate nesting boxes that are filled with clean, dry bedding. To reduce disturbances, these boxes ought to be put in a quiet location.

Roosting locations must be elevated to mirror the birds’ tendency to perch. Strong and well-made roosts not only provide a sense of security but also aid in the development of strong legs and feet.

 Reproduction and Breeding

Natural mating or artificial insemination are the two main factors in turkey reproduction. Toms, the male turkeys, are introduced to hens, the female turkeys, in a natural mating process. To guarantee optimal fertility rates and prevent putting the toms under too much strain during breeding, farmers use mating ratios.

Another extensively used technique in breeding turkeys is artificial insemination. It enables careful parent bird selection based on predetermined qualities and permits farmers to preserve genetic variation by employing semen from various toms. Using this method, semen is taken from particular toms and placed inside the hens’ reproductive system. Artificial insemination helps expand the gene pool, which lowers the chance of inbreeding while providing control over breeding outcomes.

After fertilisation, the development of turkey eggs is carefully monitored. The right environmental factors, such as humidity and temperature, are provided by farmers to promote healthy embryonic growth. To detect and address any problems like infertility or abnormalities, the incubation phase must be regularly monitored.

Farmers that raise turkeys also pay special attention to broodiness, which is a hen’s innate desire to incubate and hatch eggs. Some hens have pronounced broodiness, whereas others do not. Farmers may decide to increase broodiness using specific triggers, such as offering secluded nesting places or utilising artificial lighting and environmental controls, in order to promote effective hatching and nurturing of chicks.

Careful documentation and ongoing assessment of breeding methods and results are necessary for managing reproduction and breeding in turkey farming. To make informed choices about upcoming breeding programmes, farmers must keep an eye on fertility rates, hatchability, and overall production.

Daily Care and Maintenance

Cleaning and Sanitation Practices

To ensure the health of the turkey, the surroundings must be kept clean. Keep the coop, nesting sites, and feeding stations clean and sanitary on a regular basis. Clean up any leftover feed and dirty bedding right away. This lessens stress on the birds and aids in the prevention of disease transmission.

Make sure there is always access to fresh water, and clean waterers every day to avoid infection. Use safe and approved disinfectants to clean surfaces and equipment, paying close attention to places where bacteria are likely to thrive.

Grooming and Handling Tips

The general health of your turkeys is influenced by gentle handling and proper grooming. Take caution when handling them to prevent startling them with unexpected movements or loud noises. Check frequently for symptoms of disease or injury, such as limping or strange behaviour.

If the turkey’s nails grow too long, trim them to avoid pain and possibly harm. Additionally, check their feathers for mites or lice, and take immediate action if necessary.

Monitoring Behavior and Growth

You may spot any health issues in your turkeys early by keeping an eye on their behaviour and growth. As a sudden drop in appetite can be an indication of disease, pay attention to how they eat. Keep an eye on their weight gain to make sure it corresponds to the normal growth rates for their age.

Watch how they interact with one another in the flock. Isolation or aggressive behaviour may be signs of stress or health problems. To keep an environment that is peaceful and healthy, respond to any issues right away.

 Harvesting and Processing Turkeys

Domesticated turkeys, including those raised on factory farms, are slaughtered between five and six months of age. The lifespan of a pet turkey is ten years. The life expectancy of a turkey raised on farms varies by gender. At 14 to 16 weeks of age, hens are considered mature for slaughter, and male turkeys are ready around 19 weeks of age. Even at the age of 12 weeks, some turkeys raised extensively are killed.

front view fresh raw chicken gra

The night before the day of slaughter, food is typically withheld from turkeys so that the crop would be empty, making the bird much easier to clean and less filthy.
On the day of the slaughter, tables are set up for two purposes: one is used for plucking, and the other is used for eviscerating, which is the removal of the internal organs.
The turkey fryer is reheated and filled with water 30 minutes before the killing starts. For the purpose of properly scalding the turkeys before plucking, the water will be heated to a temperature of about 150 degrees F.

When slaughtering a turkey, special cones are typically utilised, which is also a more humane method because the cone form prevents the bird from flopping around. The turkeys are tied upside down by their legs, Cut the neck’s primary artery on either side after hanging them up. This guarantees compassionate handling and good bleeding out for cleaner meat.

The turkeys are scalded first to expedite the plucking procedure. This also makes the feather much simpler to remove. Once the tail has been lifted, it is easy to tell if the feathers are ready to be plucked. Additionally, care is being taken to avoid over-scalding the turkeys, which could result in the skin separating. After the turkeys have been scalded, hang them up by the feet once more and start plucking. They work well and are considerably quicker than hand plucking if you have access to a chicken plucker big enough for a turkey. Move the turkey to a table once the majority of the feathers have been removed to continue plucking and cleaning.

The turkeys are cleaned with lukewarm water after being properly plucked. Using knives or poultry shears, the head and legs are removed. The turkey’s oil gland is removed from its back.
The oesophagus is dragged out, the windpipe is severed, and a slice is made with a knife above the breastbone at the base of the neck.
While the carcass is pulled open and the fat from the gizzard is removed, the turkeys are still lying on their backs. In this manner, the internal organs are also removed.

The turkeys are cooled after being eviscerated and cleaned. To do this, put the cleaned turkeys in a refrigerator or cooler that has ice water. When they are thoroughly cooled, they are wrapped in freezer wrap or heat shrink bags and placed back in the freezer.

Marketing and Selling Your Turkeys

The success of your turkey farming endeavour depends on more than just growing healthy birds in the world of poultry farming. It’s equally important to become an expert at marketing and selling your turkeys.

First, decide which demographic your turkey options will appeal to. To focus your marketing efforts, it is essential to comprehend who your potential customers are. Think about things like location, age, and preferences. Are you aiming your business at customers who are looking for lean protein or perhaps a centrepiece for special occasions? Your marketing strategies will be directed in the proper path by this understanding.

Making a strong brand identity is crucial. It represents the core of your turkey business and is more than just a logo. Create a brand narrative that displays your dedication to quality, sustainability, or any other differentiating characteristics. It is crucial to implement a multi-channel strategy. Use social media, build an interesting website, and peruse regional markets. Utilise convincing language and eye-catching images that appeal to your target audience.

Creating enduring relationships is important to success in the turkey industry, which goes beyond simple transactional success. Encourage customer feedback and pay attention to what they have to say. Answer questions as soon as possible, and professionally and empathetically handle complaints. To keep your customers interested and informed, think about loyalty programmes, special discounts, or interesting newsletters. Keep in mind that happy customers are more likely to recommend your brand to others than just repeat customers.

Sustainability and Environmental Considerations

The agriculture sector has seen a rise in environmental awareness and understanding of the significance of sustainability in recent years. Among the several industries, turkey farming has achieved notable progress in putting eco-friendly practices into place, as well as in waste management and resource efficiency.

  • Implementing Eco-Friendly Practices

Similar to other animal husbandry practices, raising turkeys has historically been fraught with environmental issues. However, in order to lessen their negative effects on the environment, modern turkey farms are aggressively implementing green practices.

The use of fewer chemicals in turkey production is an important component. To control pests and diseases, farmers are increasingly using organic and natural techniques. This change ensures that the turkey meat produced is healthier and more natural while also reducing the environmental impact caused by synthetic chemicals.

Sustainable turkey farms also place a high priority on the welfare of the animals. Free-range farming and large, well-ventilated barns are now considered industry standards. These methods not only improve the quality of life for the turkeys, but they also produce stronger, healthier birds that need fewer antibiotics.

  • Waste Management and Resource Efficiency

In the raising of turkeys, waste management is a crucial aspect of sustainability. Manure and leftover feed are just two examples of the large amounts of organic waste produced by turkey farms. Innovative solutions have been developed to deal with this problem.

Converting leftover turkey into renewable energy is one such method. Manure is broken down in anaerobic digesters, and the biogas that is produced can either be used as a clean energy source or transformed into electricity. This not only saves waste but also helps a farm become energy-independent.

Another area where sustainable turkey farming thrives is resource efficiency. Precision farming methods are being used by farmers to maximise the use of feed and water. These procedures protect priceless resources while significantly lowering costs. In order to further reduce this, rainwater collection systems are being installed.

Troubleshooting Common Challenges in Turkey Farming

Addressing Predators

Your flock of turkeys may be seriously threatened by predators. Foxes, raccoons, birds of prey, and even domestic dogs are common predators. Take into account the following precautions to protect your turkeys:

  •  Secure Coop Design: Use durable materials and install locks on the doors and windows to make your turkey coop predator-proof.
  •  Electric Fencing: Electric fencing installed around the turkey enclosure can efficiently fend off predators.
  •  Guard Animals: Use guard animals to assist in warding off potential attackers, such as dogs or llamas.
  •  Nighttime Lockdown: When most predators are out at night, lock your turkeys inside the coop.
Pest Issues

Pests like mites, lice, and flies can stress turkeys out and harm their health. Here’s how to deal with bug problems:

  •  Routine Inspection: Check your turkeys frequently for signs of pests. Look for red, inflamed skin or feathers with lice.
  •  Pest Control Solutions: To address infestations, use poultry-friendly pest control solutions like diatomaceous earth or poultry dust.
  • Cleanliness: Keep your coop dry and clean since bugs love filthy habitats.
  •  Quarantine fresh Birds: To stop the spread of pests, quarantine fresh turkeys for a few weeks before integrating them into the flock.
Dealing with Unexpected Weather Conditions

Extreme weather can stress your turkeys, and it might be unpredictable. Here’s how to deal with unforeseen weather difficulties:

  •  Shelter: In times of inclement weather, such as intense rain or bitter cold, make sure your turkeys have access to shelter, such as a well-insulated coop.
  • Adequate Ventilation: Maintain adequate ventilation in the coop to avoid a buildup of humidity, which can cause respiratory problems in turkeys.
  • Heat Lamps: To keep the coop warm in chilly weather, use heat lamps. To avoid fires, make sure they are installed securely.
  • Natural Shade: In order to keep turkeys cool during hot weather, offer natural shade or even a sprinkler system.


1. What is the significance of choosing the right breed in turkey farming?

Selecting the right breed in turkey farming is crucial as it determines factors like egg-laying capacity, meat production potential, adaptability to specific climates, and temperament. The choice of breed impacts the overall success and profitability of a turkey farm.

2. How can I implement sustainable practices in my turkey farming operation?

Implementing sustainable practices in turkey farming involves prioritizing the health and welfare of the birds, while also considering environmental impact. This can be achieved by focusing on factors such as feed efficiency, waste reduction, and exploring niche markets to enhance profitability and long-term viability.

3. What are some common health issues in turkeys, and how can they be managed?

Turkeys can face respiratory conditions, gastrointestinal disorders, and parasitic infestations. Proper ventilation, balanced nutrition, and vaccination programs are essential for disease management. Recognizing early signs of illness and maintaining a clean environment also play a crucial role in maintaining turkey health.

4. How should I design the layout of my turkey farm for optimal productivity?

Designing the layout of a turkey farm involves creating distinct zones for brooding, growth, and breeding. Adequate space, proper insulation, and ventilation are key considerations. Additionally, providing suitable equipment like brooders, feeders, and watering systems ensures the well-being of the flock.

5. What are some eco-friendly practices that can be implemented in turkey farming?

Eco-friendly practices in turkey farming include reducing the use of chemicals, employing organic pest control methods, and adopting sustainable waste management strategies. Utilizing renewable energy sources, like biogas from manure, and maximizing resource efficiency also contribute to a more environmentally conscious operation.

6. How can I effectively market and sell my turkeys in the poultry industry?

Successful marketing in turkey farming involves understanding your target audience and creating a strong brand identity. Utilize multi-channel strategies, such as social media and regional markets, to reach potential customers. Building lasting relationships, offering quality products, and implementing feedback loops are key to sustaining a thriving turkey farming business.

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